Culture, gender, and self: a perspective from individualism-collectivism research yoshihisa kashima a division of labor within society may produce gender differences, but this cannot explain cultural differences a study of self-construal involving 5 cultures (australia, the united states, and people in the eastern collectivist cultures. (harry triandis) what are the three key factors to why some cultures are individualistic and others collectivistic 1 complexity of a society (more complex, more groups to identify with, so less focus on any one group and more focus on personal goals. The fundamental political conflict in america today is, as it has been for a century, individualism vs collectivism does the individual’s life belong to him—or does it belong to the group, the community, society, or the state. Knowing about the basis of this collectivism versus individualism construct will help you to recognize, understand, and anticipate attitudes in different types of cultures individualist— the individual identifies primarily with self, with the needs of the individual being satisfied before those of the group. Major differences between individualism and collectivism an individualistic culture based on the tenants of freedom, individualism, and self-reliance in this culture, people are considered “good” if they are strong, assertive, and independent.
Understand the difference between cultural and cross-cultural research methods appreciate cultural awareness as a source of personal well-being, social responsibility, and social harmony explain the difference between individualism and collectivism. Individualistic agency needs also explain research confirming the relationship between cultural individualism, human rights, and equality (diener, diener & diener 1995: 864-851) accordingly, individualistic countries give their citizens more freedom than collectivistic cultures (basabe & ros 2005: 221-189. Individualistic cultures are those who put more emphasis on the needs of an individual as opposed to the needs of a group as a whole, like a community as a whole or even a whole nation. There is a great deal of research on individualism versus collectivism to explain the variety of cultural differences that make up a person’s identity these studies show a variation in communication, expression, perception, and conflict avoidance that has become a framework of cultural theory (matsumoto & juang, 2008.
Individualism vs collectivism in different less personal privacy, the belief that group between members of individualistic and collectivistic cultures differences have been. This inconsistency between individual preference and cultural individualism-collectivism ranking highlights the potential difficulty with using the individualism-collectivism framework to explain all variances between individuals of different cultures. Previous work has highlighted the prominent differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures where self-identity is concerned: whereas individual identity is emphasized in. Collectivist cultures actually downplay independence and promote dependence on a core group of people this strengthens the relationships that hold the fabric of a collectivist society together reciprocity of responsibility and favors between members of an in-group allows people in an extended family to get things done – in other words, it.
Individualist cultures, such as those of the united states and europe, emphasize personal achievement regardless of the expense of group goals, resulting in a strong sense of competition collectivist cultures, such as those of china , korea , and japan , emphasize family and work group goals above individual needs or desires. The fundamental difference between individualist and collectivist culture lies in the difference in handling the relationship between individuals and community individualist culture highlights personal interests. Cultural differences between poland and america hofstede’s dimensions of culture are the most popular model to explain the various effects across cultures the data gathered by hofsted from approximately 70 countries analyzed survey responses from participants. Individualism-collectivism is a major measurement of cultural variability used to explain cultural differences in communication across cultures people in individualistic society are more self-centered and emphasize personal achievement rather than the group harmony.
The distinction between the cultural (collectivist vs individualist) and psychological the same phenomenon can be observed in individualist cultures, but the difference between ingroup and outgroup is attenuated (triandis, if we assume that the united states is a prototypical individualist culture, this may be the profile of individualism. Then explain how your own identity has been impacted by your culture (collectivistic or individualistic) finally, explain how your identity might differ if you were raised in the other type of culture. Individualist and collectivist values in transition planning for to illustrate many differences between individualist and col- impacts many children’s lives and seems to explain much of the cultural clash that some stu-dents face in dealing with the individualistic approach highly prized within the american school system for many stu.
Collectivistic cultures emphasize the needs and goals of the group as a whole over the needs and desires of each individual in such cultures, relationships with other members of the group and the interconnectedness between people play a central role in each person's identity. Individualism versus collectivism as an aspect of culture and extraversion as an aspect of personality may help explain self-presentation attitudes, intentions, and behaviors on social networking sites.
Our analyses find a positive effect of cultural individualism (vs collectivism) for mobile phones and a positive effect of personal individualism (vs collectivism) for fast food restaurants, whereas they find negative effects of cultural individualism (vs collectivism) in five industries. Chances are you have probably heard the terms individualistic and collectivistic cultures before, often in the context of noting behavior and attitude differences between the two types of societies so what exactly makes individualistic cultures different from collectivistic ones. Individualism is „the opposite of collectivism together they form on of the dimensions of national cultures individualism stands for a society in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family only“ 10. Individualism focuses on empowering people through individual rights, but collectivism focuses on empowering people through collective rights individualists argue that self-reliance should be emphasized collectivists argue that governments and other organizations should ensure people have access.